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50 معلومة في الـ Pharmacology لابد لكل طالب أن يعرفها

ملخص لأهم 50 معلومة في الـ Pharmacology لابد لكل طالب أن يعرفها

(1)Aspirin Increase the risk of bleeding in olders,those who drink alcohol and those who take NSAIDs and other blood thinning agents.

(2)First Generation Antihistamine Such as chlorphenramine,Diphenhydramine,Dimenhydrinate-cause more sedation than their second generation equivalents such as acrivastine,cetrizine,loratidine and fexofenadine .These second generation has less penetration through the blood brain barrier.These medicine are used in the treatment of hay fever and Allergy.

(3)ACE Inhibitors are known to cause Continous Dry cough-Because of the accumulation of Kinins in the lungs.Patient are sometimes then switched to ARBs (Anhiotensin receptor blockers)-Though Cough May persist.

(4)Amoxicillin is typically the first choice drug in the treatment of otitis media (Inflammation of the middle ear).

(5)Clavulanic Acid Is A beta -Lactamse inhibitor,Meaning it inhibit the enzyme i.e Beta lactamases this enzyme is responsible for the breakdown of antibiotics that contain beta lactam ring.

(6)Paracetamol Overdose causes depletion of glutathione,the compound responsible for ejecting toxic NAPQI(N.acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine) .Acetylcysteine can be administered to fill/restore glutathione levels.

(7)Statins drugs are associated with an increased risk of muscle damage/pain (myopathies)and in some cases can lead to the potentially fatal rhabdomyolysis.

(8)Proton Pump inhibitors like esomeprazole,lansoprazole and pantoprazole inhibit the final step production of acid in the stomach by irreversibly blocking the H+/K+ Atipase of gastric parietal cells.

(9)H2 Receptor Blockers also inhibit or block the production of acid but not in the final phase.Ranitidine and Famotidine are longer acting than cimetidine,With fewer drug reactions and fewer adverse effects.

(10)Tetracycline causes tooth discolouration and phototoxicity.Tetracycline absorption is impaired by drugs or foods containing calcium,magnesium,iron or aluminium iron.

(11)Flouroquinolones like ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin are associated with an increased risk of tendon damage.

(12)Beta Blockers should be avoided in asthamtic patients because of their potential to precipitate acute asthamtic attacks.

(13)Protamine sulfate is used as antidote to heparin toxicity.

(14)Methyldopa ,Labetalol and Nifedipine are the drugs of choice for hypertension in pregnant womens.

(15)Aminoglycosides like Gentamicin and tobramycin are associated with nephrotoxcity and ototoxicity.

(16)Salbutamol is a short acting beta 2 agonist and is a bronchodilator.its side effects include headache,tachycardia(fast heart rate) tremors,anxiety and dizziness.

(17)Opioids such as morphine,heroin,oxycodone,and fantanyl stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system,causing constricted pupil.This is a common identifier of opioid toxicity.

(18)Calcitonin is used to treat osteoporosis in womens who are atleast 5 years past menopause.

(19)Pramipexole is a dopamine agonist which is used to treat Parkinson disease and restless legs syndrome.

(20)Methotrexate is an antifolate,immunosuppressant drug used to treat various types of cancer and autoimmune diseases.side effects include fatigue,hair loss,nausea,ulcerative stomatitis,leukopenia and hepatoxicity and is teratogenic.This drug cause folate deficiency.

(21)Narrow therapeutic window drugs like Digoxin,lithium and warfarin need close monitoring because very small changes in dose can have very serious clinical consequences.

(22)There are two types of Insulin analogue i.e short and long acting analogues.Short acting analogues includes insulin glulisine,insulin aspart,and insulin lispro. Long acting include insulin detemir and insulin glargine.insulin degludec is an ultra long acting insulin analogue.

(23)Naproxen is an NSAID Used to treat pain and inflammation and is associated with an intermediate risk of stomach ulceration,compared to low risk ibuprofen,and high risk indomethacin.

(24)isoniazid in combination with other drugs used for the treatment of TB (Tuberculosis).Side effect includes elevated liver enzymes ,reduced blood count,peripheral neuropathy and pyridoxine dificieny.

(25)Acetylsalicylic acid or ASA toxicity can cause ringing of the ear (Tinnitus)

(26)Don’t Use Narcotics in patient with head trauma.

(27)Don’t Give antacids with food because it delay gastric emptying.

(28)Avoid Warfarin with acetaminophen and acetylsalicylic acid because it increase bleeding and increased INR.

(29)Hydroxycholoroquine is an antimalarial drug also used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.its chronic use is associated with eye toxicity.That is why patient should be monitored for the presence of any ocular damage.

(30)Senna is used in the treatment of constipation.it is recommended to be taken at bedtime because it takes 6-12 hours to show effect.

(31)Furosemide is used to treat edema in CHF (Congestive cardiac failure),Kidney disease and liver diseases.Side effects includes ototoxicity ,increased urination,hyperglycemia,hyperuricemia,,hypokalemia and hypotension.

(32)Fusidic acid is used to treat skin infections of gram positive organism.

(33)Warfarin is an anticoagulant that works by inhibting the vitamin k dependent synthesis clotting factors 2,7,9 and 10.Risk increase in the first phase of therapy.

(34)Antitussive drugs like codeine,pholcodine,and dextromethorphan are used to suppress cough.

(35)Antifungal Drugs work by inhibiting the enzyme,lanosterol-14alpha-demethylase,this enzyme responsible for converting lanosterol into ergosterol.

(36)Domperidone is a Selective D2 receptor antagonist.its used as an antemetic and gastroprokinetic agent.

(37)Global Pharmaceutical Market is more than $300 Billion.

(38)Lipitor is the best selling drug of all time.

(39)Insulin is one of the most commonly used drugs that cause adverse effects.

(40)Antihypertensive drugs like ganglion blocker drugs are not used these days because of serious adverse effects.

(41)Atomoxetine is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)it inhibit norepinephrine and serotinine transporters.side effects include dry mouth,nausea,decreased appetite,trouble in sleep,drowsiness and dizziness.

(42)Ziprasidone should be taken with food to enhance bioavailibility.it is a typical antipsychotic drug.

(43)Metformin is the first line drugs in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and long term use and high doses could lead to vitamin B12 malabsorption and its subsequent dificiency.

(44)Antidote is a greek word used to “give against”are those agents used to oppose the effects of poison with out causing damage to the normal cells.

(45)Maximum dose of paracetamol is 4 grams per day other wise will cause hepatotixcity.

(46)MRSA(Methicillin resistant staphylococus aureus) Super bug is a bacterium responsible for various difficult to treat infection in humans .

(47)Benzodiazepine are classified in term of their elimination half life .short acting benzodiazepine includes trizolam,alprazolam,midazolam and oxazepam while intermediate acting drugs include lorazepam,clonazepam,temazepam, and long acting benzodiazepines include diazepam,flurazepam,cholrdiazepoxide.

(48)Drug of choice in hypertensive emergencies is sodium nitroprusside.

(49)5-HT3 antgonist drugs like,ondansetron,palonosetron and granisetron are used to treat nausea and vomiting,especially effective in treating nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy.

(50)Drugs of choice in Congestive cardiac failure are ACE inhibtors like enalapril,lisinopril .

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